In its more specifically Marxist sense alienation refers to an experience believed by Marx to be the result of the development of the capitalist mode of production, wherein the worker was related to the product of his or her labour ‘as to an alien object’, and that ‘the more the worker spends himself, the more powerful becomes the alien world of objects which he creates over and against himself, the poorer he himself — his inner world — becomes, the less belongs to him as his own…. Whatever the product of his labour, he is not’ (Marx 1970b, 108).

Alienation

In discussion of MODERNIST literature the term has come to be used in a rather more general sense to characterize the sense of ‘non-belonging’, exclusion and loneliness seen to be typical of the modernist vision.

In discussion of MODERNIST literature the term has come to be used in a rather more general sense to characterize the sense of ‘non-belonging’, exclusion and loneliness seen to be typical of the modernist vision.

Some translations of the work of Mikhail Bakhtin use alien and cognate terms to represent Bakhtin’s view of language as stamped with and soiled by the ownership marks of other people.

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